Immigration law is complex, and the legal terminology used in the field can often be confusing for those not familiar with it. This glossary provides definitions for common terms used in U.S. immigration law, ranging from visas and green cards to deportation and asylum. Understanding the language used by immigration authorities and lawyers can be helpful for those seeking to navigate the system, as well as for anyone looking to better understand the issues facing immigrants in the United States.
Adjustment of Status
The process by which an individual who is already in the United States, typically on a non-immigrant visa, applies to change their status to that of a permanent resident. This process requires meeting specific criteria and submitting an application to USCIS. Once approved, the individual will be granted a Green Card, which grants them permanent resident status.
A document issued by USCIS that allows an individual who is in the process of adjusting their status to travel outside of the United States and return without abandoning their pending application. Advance Parole is typically granted for humanitarian, educational, or employment purposes.
Affidavit of Support
A document that a sponsor, typically a U.S. citizen or permanent resident, must submit to demonstrate that they will financially support an immigrant who is applying for a Green Card. The affidavit of support is a legally binding agreement that the sponsor will provide financial support to the immigrant until the immigrant becomes a U.S. citizen or can be credited with 40 quarters of work.
A term used in U.S. immigration law to refer to any person who is not a U.S. citizen, including permanent residents, nonimmigrant visa holders, and undocumented immigrants.
A form of protection that is available to individuals who are already in the United States and who can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution in their home country on the basis of their race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. To obtain asylum, the individual must submit an application to USCIS and demonstrate that they meet the criteria for asylum under U.S. law. If approved, the individual will be granted refugee status and will be permitted to remain in the United States.
The B-1 visa and B-2 visa are types of non-immigrant visas issued by the United States government for temporary visits to the country. The B-1 visa is for business visitors who need to come to the U.S. for activities such as attending business meetings, conferences, or conventions. It is also available for professionals seeking short-term employment, such as consultants or trainers. The B-2 visa is for visitors who are coming to the U.S. for pleasure or medical treatment, including tourism, vacation, visiting friends or relatives, or receiving medical care. It’s important to note that the B-1 and B-2 visas are not interchangeable, and travelers must apply for the visa that corresponds to their intended activities in the United States. In some cases, travelers may be eligible for a combination B-1/B-2 visa, which allows for both business and pleasure activities during their stay.
Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA)
A federal administrative appellate body that reviews decisions made by immigration judges and other immigration officials. The BIA has the authority to make binding decisions on behalf of the Department of Justice in immigration cases.
Border Crossing Card (BCC)
A card issued by the U.S. government to Mexican citizens who are frequent travelers to the United States for business or tourism purposes. The BCC is a type of non-immigrant visa that allows holders to enter the United States for up to 30 days.
The U.S. Border Patrol is a federal law enforcement agency that is responsible for securing the U.S. borders between official ports of entry. The Border Patrol is tasked with preventing illegal immigration, drug smuggling, and other criminal activity along the borders.
The measures taken by the U.S. government to secure the borders of the United States and prevent illegal immigration, drug smuggling, and other criminal activity. Border security includes a range of strategies and technologies, such as physical barriers, surveillance technology, and increased law enforcement presence.
A physical barrier constructed along the U.S. border with Mexico to prevent illegal immigration, drug smuggling, and other criminal activity. The construction of a border wall has been a controversial topic in U.S. politics, with some arguing that it is an effective way to increase border security, while others argue that it is costly and ineffective.
Bona Fide Marriage
A marriage that is entered into for genuine reasons, rather than for the purpose of obtaining immigration benefits. In immigration law, a bona fide marriage is a key requirement for obtaining a Green Card through marriage to a U.S. citizen or permanent resident. To prove that a marriage is bona fide, the couple must provide evidence of their shared life together, such as joint bank accounts, shared living arrangements, and photos of the couple together.
Certificate of Citizenship
A document issued by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to individuals who have acquired U.S. citizenship through a U.S. citizen parent or by other means. The certificate serves as proof of U.S. citizenship and is often used to obtain a U.S. passport.
Certificate of Naturalization
A document issued by USCIS to individuals who have obtained U.S. citizenship through the naturalization process. The certificate serves as proof of U.S. citizenship and is often used to obtain a U.S. passport.
The status of being a citizen of a country, which grants certain rights and privileges, such as the right to vote and the right to live and work in the country without restrictions. In the United States, citizenship can be acquired through birth in the country or through the naturalization process.
The process by which individuals who are outside of the United States apply for visas to enter the country. Consular processing is typically required for immigrant visas, such as family-based visas or employment-based visas, and involves applying at a U.S. embassy or consulate in the individual’s home country.
Country of Origin
The country where an individual was born or where they hold citizenship. In immigration law, the country of origin can be a factor in determining eligibility for certain visas or in evaluating an individual’s claim for asylum.
A standard used by U.S. immigration officials to determine whether an individual who is seeking asylum in the United States has a credible fear of persecution or harm if they are returned to their home country. If an individual passes the credible fear interview, they may be allowed to remain in the United States and pursue their asylum claim.
Customs and Border Protection
A federal law enforcement agency that is responsible for securing the borders of the United States and regulating international trade and travel. Customs and Border Protection is part of the Department of Homeland Security and is tasked with preventing illegal immigration, drug smuggling, and other criminal activity at ports of entry and along the borders.
DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals)
A program established by President Barack Obama in 2012 that provides temporary protection from deportation and work authorization to certain individuals who were brought to the United States as children and meet certain eligibility requirements. To be eligible for DACA, individuals must have arrived in the United States before the age of 16, have lived in the country continuously for at least five years, and meet other requirements.
The formal process of removing an individual from a country, typically because they have violated immigration laws or have overstayed their visa. Deportation is often initiated by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and can involve a hearing before an immigration judge.
Diversity Visa Lottery
A program that provides a limited number of visas each year to individuals from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States. The program, also known as the green card lottery, is administered by the U.S. Department of State and involves a random selection process.
A term used to describe individuals who were brought to the United States as children and are undocumented or have temporary immigration status. The term comes from the proposed legislation known as the Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act, which would have provided a pathway to citizenship for certain undocumented youth.
The status of holding citizenship in two countries. Dual citizenship is recognized by some countries, including the United States, and can be obtained through birth, marriage, or other means. However, some countries do not recognize dual citizenship and require individuals to renounce their citizenship in order to obtain citizenship in another country.
A type of immigrant visa that is available to individuals who invest a certain amount of money in a new commercial enterprise in the United States and create or preserve at least 10 full-time jobs for U.S. workers. The EB-5 visa program is intended to promote economic growth and job creation in the United States.
A type of nonimmigrant visa that is available to individuals who are citizens of countries that have a treaty of commerce and navigation with the United States. The E-1 visa is for individuals who engage in substantial trade between their home country and the United States, while the E-2 visa is for individuals who invest a substantial amount of capital in a U.S. business.
Employment Authorization Document (EAD)
A document issued by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) that allows individuals to work legally in the United States for a specified period of time. An EAD is typically issued to individuals who are in the process of adjusting their status to permanent resident, who have a pending asylum application, or who are eligible for other types of temporary employment authorization.
Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA)
An electronic authorization that is required for foreign nationals who are visa-exempt and traveling to the United States by air or sea. The eTA is issued by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and is valid for two years or until the traveler’s passport expires, whichever comes first.
An order issued by the President of the United States that has the force of law. Executive orders can be used to implement or clarify existing laws, establish new policies or programs, or address emergencies or other pressing issues. In the context of immigration, executive orders have been used to implement significant changes to immigration policy, such as the establishment of the DACA program and the travel ban on individuals from certain countries.
A type of nonimmigrant visa that is available to individuals who wish to study in the United States at an academic institution or language training program. F-1 visa holders are generally required to maintain full-time enrollment and can work part-time on campus or under certain limited circumstances off campus.
A type of nonimmigrant visa that is available to the spouses and unmarried children (under the age of 21) of F-1 visa holders. F-2 visa holders are not permitted to work in the United States.
A type of immigration that allows U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents to sponsor certain family members for immigration to the United States. The family members who may be eligible for sponsorship include spouses, parents, children, and siblings, among others.
A type of nonimmigrant visa that is available to individuals who are engaged to be married to a U.S. citizen and wish to enter the United States to get married. The fiancé(e) visa, also known as the K-1 visa, requires that the couple get married within 90 days of the fiancé(e) entering the United States.
A court that is part of the federal judicial system in the United States. Federal courts hear cases that involve federal law or disputes between parties from different states. In the context of immigration, federal courts may hear cases related to challenges to immigration policies or individual immigration cases that have been appealed from administrative agencies.
A form that is used by employers to verify the identity and employment authorization of individuals who are hired to work in the United States. The Form I-9 is required by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) and must be completed by both the employee and the employer.
A form that is used by U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents to petition for certain family members to immigrate to the United States. The Form I-130 is part of the family-based immigration process and is used to establish the relationship between the petitioner and the beneficiary.
A common term for the United States Permanent Resident Card, which is a document issued by the U.S. government that confirms an individual’s status as a lawful permanent resident (LPR) of the United States. Green card holders have the right to live and work in the United States indefinitely and can eventually apply for U.S. citizenship.
Grounds of Inadmissibility
Refers to the legal reasons that can prevent an individual from being admitted to the United States or obtaining certain immigration benefits. Grounds of inadmissibility can include things like a criminal record, past immigration violations, health concerns, and security issues, among others.
Guest Worker Program
A type of immigration program that allows employers in the United States to hire foreign workers for temporary or seasonal work. Guest worker programs are typically tied to specific industries or job categories and may have certain requirements or restrictions on the types of jobs that can be filled.
A type of nonimmigrant visa that is available to individuals who are coming to the United States to work in a specialty occupation. H-1B visa holders are typically required to have specialized knowledge or skills in their field and must have a job offer from a U.S. employer.
Two types of nonimmigrant visas that are available to individuals who are coming to the United States to work in temporary or seasonal jobs. The H-2A visa is specifically for agricultural work, while the H-2B visa can be used for non-agricultural jobs. Both visa types require a job offer from a U.S. employer and have certain requirements around wages, housing, and other conditions of employment.
A type of discretionary parole that is granted by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) in certain limited circumstances. Humanitarian parole can be used to allow an individual who is otherwise inadmissible to the United States to enter temporarily for humanitarian reasons, such as to receive medical treatment or attend a family member’s funeral.
ICE (Immigration and Customs Enforcement)
A federal law enforcement agency within the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) that is responsible for enforcing immigration laws, including the identification and removal of undocumented immigrants and investigating criminal activity related to immigration and customs violations.
A form used to petition U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) for a family member to immigrate to the United States. The I-130 is typically filed by a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident on behalf of their relative.
A form used to apply for adjustment of status to become a lawful permanent resident (LPR) of the United States. The I-485 is typically filed by individuals who are already in the United States and are eligible to apply for LPR status based on their family relationship, employment, refugee or asylee status, or other factors.
A foreign national who has been granted the legal right to permanently reside in the United States as a lawful permanent resident (LPR) or as a naturalized citizen.
The process of coming to live permanently in a country other than one’s native country, typically with the intention of seeking permanent residence or citizenship.
Immigration and Nationality Act (INA)
The primary federal law that governs U.S. immigration policy. The INA sets out the categories of individuals who are eligible to immigrate to the United States, the requirements for obtaining various types of visas, and the grounds for inadmissibility and deportation.
A federal judge who presides over immigration proceedings, including deportation hearings and asylum cases. Immigration judges are appointed by the U.S. Attorney General and are employees of the U.S. Department of Justice.
Refers to a foreign national who is ineligible to enter the United States or obtain immigration benefits due to a legal barrier, such as a criminal record, immigration violation, or security concern.
A type of nonimmigrant visa that is available to individuals who are coming to the United States to invest a substantial amount of capital in a U.S. business. The two main types of investor visas are the E-2 visa for treaty investors and the EB-5 visa for immigrant investors.
A nonimmigrant visa category for individuals who come to the United States to participate in educational and cultural exchange programs. The J-1 visa is sponsored by a designated exchange program sponsor, and the visa holder is subject to a two-year home country residency requirement upon completion of the program.
A nonimmigrant visa category for the spouse and unmarried minor children (under the age of 21) of J-1 visa holders.
Juvenile Immigration Court
A specialized immigration court that handles cases involving minors who are in removal proceedings. The juvenile immigration court is part of the Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR) within the U.S. Department of Justice.
A nonimmigrant visa category for the fiancé(e) of a U.S. citizen who is coming to the United States to marry and apply for adjustment of status to become a lawful permanent resident.
A nonimmigrant visa category for the unmarried minor children (under the age of 21) of K-1 visa holders.
A process used by U.S. employers to obtain permission to hire foreign workers on a permanent or temporary basis. The labor certification process involves demonstrating that there are no qualified U.S. workers available for the position and that the employment of foreign workers will not negatively affect U.S. workers.
A nonimmigrant visa category for individuals who are coming to the United States to work for a U.S. employer in a managerial, executive, or specialized knowledge capacity. The L-1 visa is also available to multinational companies that wish to transfer employees to their U.S. affiliate or subsidiary.
Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR)
A foreign national who has been granted the legal right to permanently reside in the United States. LPRs are also known as green card holders because they are issued a green card as evidence of their status.
Refers to the Diversity Visa Program, a lottery-based immigration program that is available to individuals from countries with historically low rates of immigration to the United States. The Diversity Visa Program awards a limited number of visas each year to eligible applicants who are selected at random through a computer-generated lottery.
A category of immigration that allows U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents to sponsor their foreign-born spouses for immigration to the United States. In order to sponsor a spouse for immigration, the couple must be legally married and meet certain eligibility requirements.
A physical examination that is required for most applicants for immigration benefits to the United States. The medical exam is intended to determine whether an applicant has any communicable diseases or other medical conditions that would make them inadmissible to the United States.
A person who moves from one country or region to another, often for economic or political reasons. Migrants may be classified as refugees, asylum seekers, or economic migrants, depending on the circumstances of their migration.
Motion to Reopen
A legal procedure that allows an applicant or petitioner to request that an immigration decision be reconsidered based on new evidence or changed circumstances. A motion to reopen must be filed within a certain timeframe and must demonstrate that there is a reasonable likelihood of success on the merits of the case.
Multinational Manager or Executive Visa
A nonimmigrant visa category that allows multinational companies to transfer their executives or managers to work for their U.S. affiliate or subsidiary. To be eligible for the visa, the foreign national must have been employed by the foreign company for at least one year in the preceding three years in a managerial or executive capacity. The visa is also available to specialized knowledge employees.
National Visa Center (NVC)
The National Visa Center is a government agency responsible for processing immigrant visa applications that have been approved by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). The NVC is responsible for collecting fees, processing required documents, and scheduling visa interviews at U.S. embassies and consulates abroad.
The process by which a foreign-born individual becomes a U.S. citizen. To be eligible for naturalization, an individual must have been a lawful permanent resident for a certain period of time, demonstrate proficiency in English and knowledge of U.S. history and government, and meet other eligibility requirements.
A temporary visa that allows a foreign national to enter the United States for a specific purpose, such as tourism, business, study, or temporary work. Non-immigrant visas are typically issued for a limited period of time and are subject to various conditions and restrictions.
Notice to Appear (NTA)
A legal document issued by the U.S. government to initiate removal proceedings against a foreign national who is deemed to be inadmissible or deportable from the United States. The NTA provides the individual with notice of the charges against them and the opportunity to appear before an immigration judge to contest the charges.
OPT (Optional Practical Training)
A temporary work authorization that allows foreign students who have completed a degree program at a U.S. college or university to work for a limited period of time in their field of study. OPT is typically granted for up to 12 months and may be extended for an additional 24 months for certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields.
A non-immigrant visa category that allows foreign nationals with extraordinary ability in science, art, education, business, or athletics to enter the United States temporarily to work in their field of expertise. The O-1 visa is intended for individuals who have achieved national or international recognition in their field and requires extensive documentation to demonstrate the individual’s exceptional ability.
The act of remaining in the United States beyond the expiration date of a visa or other authorized period of stay. Overstaying can have serious consequences, including being barred from returning to the United States for a certain period of time or being subject to removal (deportation) proceedings.
A form of temporary permission to enter or remain in the United States for a specific purpose, such as humanitarian reasons, urgent medical treatment, or to assist in a law enforcement investigation. Parole is not considered an admission to the United States and does not confer any immigration status.
The status of being a lawful permanent resident (LPR) of the United States, also commonly known as holding a green card. LPRs are authorized to live and work in the United States permanently and may apply for citizenship after meeting certain eligibility requirements.
The date on which a foreign national’s immigrant visa petition is filed with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) or the Department of State. Priority dates are used to determine when an immigrant visa may become available based on visa availability and immigration quotas.
A type of waiver that allows certain individuals who are inadmissible to the United States due to unlawful presence to apply for a waiver while still in the United States, rather than having to leave the country and apply for a waiver from abroad.
A term used to describe an individual who is likely to become primarily dependent on the government for financial support, such as by receiving public benefits like food stamps or housing assistance. Immigrants who are deemed likely to become a public charge may be ineligible for certain visas or permanent residence.
A foreign national who is authorized to receive certain public benefits, such as Medicaid or Supplemental Security Income (SSI), based on their immigration status. Qualified aliens generally include lawful permanent residents, refugees, and certain other categories of immigrants.
Qualifying Family Member
A spouse, child, parent, or sibling of a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident who may be eligible to immigrate to the United States based on their relationship to the U.S. citizen or LPR. The eligibility requirements and immigration processes may vary depending on the specific family relationship and immigration category.
A person who has fled their home country due to persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. Refugees may apply for protection and resettlement in a third country, such as the United States, under the Refugee Resettlement Program.
Legal strategies and proceedings used to challenge a deportation order and prevent or delay the removal of an individual from the United States. This may involve presenting evidence of eligibility for relief or challenging the legality of the removal order.
Legal proceedings initiated by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to deport an individual from the United States. The proceedings are conducted by an immigration judge in a specialized court called the Immigration Court.
Request for Evidence (RFE)
A formal request issued by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to an applicant or petitioner for additional information or documentation needed to make a decision on an application or petition. An RFE must be responded to within a specified time frame or the application or petition may be denied.
To cancel or withdraw an immigration benefit or status, such as a visa or permanent residence, due to fraud, misrepresentation, or other violations of immigration law. Revocation may also occur if the individual is no longer eligible for the immigration benefit or status.
A non-immigrant visa category for aliens who are assisting law enforcement in investigating or prosecuting an organized criminal group or a terrorist organization. This visa may also be available to their immediate family members.
S.T.E.M. OPT Extension
A 24-month extension of Optional Practical Training (OPT) for certain F-1 students who have completed a degree in a Science, Technology, Engineering, or Mathematics (STEM) field. This extension allows eligible students to work in the United States for an additional two years beyond the initial 12-month OPT period.
Special Immigrant Juvenile (SIJ) Status
A form of relief available to undocumented immigrant children who have been abused, neglected, or abandoned by one or both parents. SIJ status allows the child to obtain lawful permanent residence in the United States and may lead to citizenship.
A visa category for the spouse of a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident who wishes to enter or remain in the United States. Depending on the circumstances, the spousal visa may be issued as a non-immigrant visa or an immigrant visa.
A non-immigrant visa category for individuals who wish to come to the United States to pursue academic or vocational studies at an accredited institution. There are several types of student visas, including F-1 visas for academic students, M-1 visas for vocational students, and J-1 visas for exchange visitors.
Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS)
A web-based system used to track and monitor international students and exchange visitors in the United States. SEVIS enables schools and designated program sponsors to comply with reporting requirements related to the maintenance of student and exchange visitor status.
A T visa is a type of visa that is available to individuals who are victims of human trafficking and who are present in the United States as a result of trafficking. The T visa allows the victim to remain in the United States for up to four years and also provides a pathway to permanent residency.
A T-1 visa is a nonimmigrant visa available to certain family members of T visa holders who are also victims of human trafficking. The T-1 visa allows the family member to remain in the United States for up to four years and also provides a pathway to permanent residency.
TPS (Temporary Protected Status)
TPS is a temporary immigration status that is granted to individuals from countries that have been designated by the U.S. government as experiencing temporary conditions that make it unsafe for individuals to return to their home country. TPS allows individuals to remain in the United States and obtain work authorization.
The travel ban is an executive order issued by the President of the United States that restricts travel from certain countries. The current travel ban, which was issued in 2020, restricts travel from Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria, Yemen, Venezuela, and North Korea.
Treaty Trader or Investor Visa
A treaty trader or investor visa is a type of visa that is available to individuals from certain countries who engage in trade or investment with the United States. To be eligible for a treaty trader or investor visa, the individual must be a citizen of a country that has a qualifying treaty with the United States and must be coming to the United States to engage in substantial trade or investment activities.
U Nonimmigrant Status (U-Visa)
The U visa is a temporary visa available to victims of certain crimes who have suffered mental or physical abuse and are helpful to law enforcement or government officials in the investigation or prosecution of criminal activity. The U visa allows victims to remain in the United States for up to four years and may lead to permanent residency.
U.S. Travel Document (Advance Parole)
Advance parole is a document that allows individuals who are otherwise inadmissible to the United States to enter the country temporarily for humanitarian, educational, or employment reasons. It is typically issued to individuals who are in the process of adjusting their status to that of a lawful permanent resident.
Unlawful presence refers to the period of time during which an individual is in the United States without legal status, either by overstaying a visa or entering the country illegally. Unlawful presence can have serious consequences for individuals seeking to adjust their status or obtain legal status in the future.
USCIS (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services)
USCIS is the agency responsible for administering and enforcing the nation’s immigration laws. USCIS is responsible for processing applications for various immigration benefits, including visas, green cards, and citizenship.
VAWA (Violence Against Women Act)
A federal law that provides protection for victims of domestic violence, including non-U.S. citizens, by allowing them to self-petition for lawful status and work authorization in the U.S. without relying on their abusive U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident spouse or parent.
A travel document that allows a person to enter and stay in the U.S. for a specific purpose and period of time. There are many types of visas for various purposes, such as tourism, business, study, work, and immigration.
A monthly publication by the U.S. Department of State that shows the availability of immigrant visa numbers based on the priority date and preference category of the visa applicant. The visa bulletin is used by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services to determine whether a visa applicant is eligible for adjustment of status or consular processing.
When a person remains in the U.S. beyond the authorized period of stay granted by their visa, without obtaining an extension of stay or changing to another immigration status. Visa overstays can have serious consequences, including being barred from reentering the U.S. for a certain period of time.
Visa Waiver Program
A program that allows citizens of certain countries to enter the U.S. for tourism or business purposes for up to 90 days without obtaining a visa, as long as they meet certain eligibility criteria and have a valid Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA). The visa waiver program aims to facilitate travel and trade while enhancing border security.
A waiver is a document that allows an individual to set aside or excuse certain requirements, restrictions or obligations. In immigration, a waiver may be granted to an individual who would otherwise be ineligible for a visa or other immigration benefit due to certain grounds of inadmissibility.
Waiver of Inadmissibility
A waiver of inadmissibility is a legal mechanism that allows an individual who is otherwise ineligible for a visa or other immigration benefit due to certain grounds of inadmissibility to receive that benefit. Waivers of inadmissibility are generally granted in cases where the denial of the benefit would result in extreme hardship to a qualifying relative, such as a spouse or child.
A work permit, also known as an Employment Authorization Document (EAD), is a document issued by USCIS that allows an individual to work legally in the United States for a specified period of time. A work permit is usually issued to individuals who are in the United States on a temporary basis and are authorized to work, including individuals with certain types of visas, such as students, spouses of certain visa holders, and asylees or refugees.
Worksite enforcement refers to the efforts of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to investigate and penalize employers who violate federal immigration laws by hiring unauthorized workers or engaging in other illegal employment practices.
Xenophobia refers to an intense fear or hatred of people from other countries or cultures. In the context of immigration, xenophobia can manifest as a general hostility toward immigrants or a belief that immigrants pose a threat to the economic, social, or cultural fabric of the United States.
Youthful Offender Adjudication
Youthful offender adjudication is a legal process used in certain states to provide leniency to young offenders who commit certain types of crimes. In immigration, youthful offender adjudications may be considered in the determination of whether an individual is admissible to the United States.
Zero Tolerance Policy
Zero Tolerance Policy is a term used to describe the practice of prosecuting all individuals who enter the United States illegally, regardless of whether they are seeking asylum or other forms of humanitarian relief. This policy has been controversial due to the separation of families that resulted from the implementation of the policy.